We are proud of the products we manufacture in-house. We take full control over the entire chain of production, which starts with the idea of product creation and proceeds with its promotion and delivery to the end customer. All of them are produced in Europe in accordance to our special orders. Moreover, all of the products pass all clinical tests and meet all European standards. As a result, we achieve the highest quality of our products that do bring benefit to our end customers. This is especially beneficial for our partners, as it’s much easier to advertise high-quality products, which people are already aware of, so the likelihood that they make an order multiplies a couple of times. This has its positive impact on our partners’ ROI and helps avoid losses.
We are proud of the products we manufacture in-house. We take full control over the entire chain of production, which starts with the idea of product creation and proceeds with its promotion and delivery to the end customer. All of them are produced in Europe in accordance to our special orders. Moreover, all of the products pass all clinical tests and meet all European standards. As a result, we achieve the highest quality of our products that do bring benefit to our end customers. This is especially beneficial for our partners, as it’s much easier to advertise high-quality products, which people are already aware of, so the likelihood that they make an order multiplies a couple of times. This has its positive impact on our partners’ ROI and helps avoid losses.
If you are a marketer or a business owner who is thinking about ways to drive traffic to your business, it’s time to consider whether affiliate marketing would be a fit for you. Whether you are an IT company in Los Angeles serving small and medium businesses or a massive company like Amazon serving customers worldwide, the first question you should ask yourself is, are there websites out there that have audiences who would more likely than not have interest in your products or services? If the answer to this question is yes, the next question you need to ask is, are you interested in the pay-per-lead or pay-per-conversion model? Using the example of the IT company in Los Angeles, this company would opt for the pay-per-lead model since they are not selling anything online and are instead looking for leads. Once this is determined, find a reputable affiliate network of your choice and join the network. I highly recommend joining a more well-known network, since they have a larger network of existing affiliates who they can reach and introduce to your new merchant offer.
Use personalization. Personalizing the content of your emails (depending on your segment from Chapter 3) will make it so much more relevant and valuable to them. Personalization goes beyond sticking your subscriber’s first name into the email. You need to tailor the actual content of the email to address their needs. For instance, an online retailer will find it much more valuable to read an email with the subject line, “How to build backlinks to your eCommerce store” than just a generic subject line, “How to build backlinks.”
Activation: A new user creates an account but, they do not use your product within the first 7 days. Create an  “activation” campaign that sends an automated email with their login information, steps on how they can get started and include a video demonstration for additional support. You can also invite them to a one-on-one meeting to walk them through the product and answer any questions they may have.
How established is your site/blog/social media following?  Do you already have an audience of 1 million or are you just getting started?  Early on in your affiliate marketing journey you will probably want to have multiple options to make sure you can cover a broad field. You might want to become an Amazon Associate as well as joining one of the networks so you will have a product link to drop into any posts you do.  An easy place to start is to promote the services you are using if you are enjoying their product - web hosting or email management systems like Aweber.
In my opinion, SAN is not a scam. But that is just my opinion. I am not a lawyer or a judge so i don’t feel it is really my job to state if something is legitimate or not. In order for me to call a training program a scam or fraud there must be no actual training or service offered. In this case, there is some quality training and you can learn how to effectively use a few online marketing methods like solo ads and email marketing.
So always make sure you have a good reach on your social media pages. If you don’t have enough followers or friends take the help of your friends who might share the link for you. Even if someone else does a share, the link being yours, you’ll be the one receiving the credits and the share. Think out of the box and find ways in which it reaches the most audience.
(b) The Local Associates Products will be made available for Amazon customers to purchase through a specific page on Amazon.com assigned to each Local Associate (such page, the “Recommendations Page”). The Recommendations Page will include either a general Amazon.com search bar or a selection of Local Associates Products curated by you. Amazon reserves the right to modify the Products included in the Local Associates Products on any Recommendations Page. You must direct all Local Associates Program marketing to the Recommendations Page to be eligible for Qualified Purchases.
Find your affiliates and affiliate programs in all the right places --As humans, many of us hope to inherently trust one another. We’d like to believe that someone’s word is good. That a check will cash. That we’ll again see the man who said he’d pay us tomorrow. If you’ve spent even a smidgeon of time working as a freelancer, you know this isn’t always the case. People pay late, if at all. You turn in work, and the source contests it. In order to avoid disappointment and fraud, make sure you are using a legitimate network to find both merchants and affiliates.
Unsubscribe rate. Unsubscribes are always going to happen no matter what, and that’s usually OK because those people probably would never have bought from you anyway. However, a high unsubscribe rate can indicate that you are losing potential customers. Check the following: Why did people subscribe to your list in the first place, and are you delivering on that promise? Is the content of your autoresponder highly relevant to the segment it is being sent to? Are you sending too many sales emails with too little value emails? (Recommended reading: 5 Reasons Why People Unsubscribe from Your Email List.)
Bounty Events are available in select countries as referenced in the Appendix (“Special Program Fees”). You will earn Special Program Fees described in this Section 4(a) in connection with “Bounty Events” which occur when (1) a customer, who must be eligible for the Bounty Event as described in the Appendix, clicks through a Special Link on your Site to a bounty-specific homepage on an Amazon Site, and (2) during the resulting Session the customer completes the bounty action described in the Appendix.
(b) Amazon Marks Limited License. Amazon grants to you a non-exclusive, non-transferable, non-sublicensable, non-assignable, revocable right and license to display, publish, and reproduce Amazon Marks that Amazon may provide to you from time to time in connection with Local Associates Program solely for the purpose of marketing Local Associates Products. Amazon reserves all right, title, and interest in and to its Intellectual Property Rights and no title to or ownership of any of Amazon’s Intellectual Property Rights (including with respect to Amazon Marks) is transferred or licensed in connection with this Local Associates Policy. “Intellectual Property Right” means any patent, copyright, trademark, or trade secret right and any other intellectual property or proprietary right in any jurisdiction, including any and all applications, registration and rights of registration, reissues, divisions, continuations, substitutes, renewals, and extensions in respect thereto, and any causes of action related to any violation, infringement or misappropriation thereof. Upon the termination of your participation in the Local Associates Program by Amazon or you, you will immediately cease and discontinue all further use of the Amazon Marks, any and all licenses you have with respect to the Amazon Marks will automatically terminate. You will promptly (within 7 calendar days) stop using and remove or destroy all Amazon Marks and any other materials provided or made available by or on behalf of Amazon to you under this Local Associates Policy.

This is one area that is often overlooked as an “out of my hands” part of the affiliate marketing funnel. Once you’ve sent a visitor to the merchant site, all you can do is cross your fingers and hope they ultimately complete whatever action is necessary for you to get your commission. That’s partially true I suppose. But you have more input here than you may realize.
While this might seem surprising at first, think about your own online behavior: When you sign up for a website (like an online store), you have to enter your email address to create the account. You even need an email address to create a Facebook or Twitter account. What’s more, Facebook and Twitter email to notify users of activity, like when someone is tagged in a photo.
According to HowStuffWorks, “Affiliate programs, also called associate programs, are arrangements in which an online merchant website pays affiliate websites a commission to send it traffic. These affiliate websites post links to the merchant site and are paid according to a particular agreement. This agreement is usually based on the number of people the affiliate sends to the merchant's site or the number of people they send who buy something or perform some other action.
The percentage of lost impressions from the rating allows you to estimate what percentage of impressions were received based on the ad rating (the ad's rating is determined by the product of the bid for the quality score). This indicator shows the quality and competitiveness of your ads. The higher quality score is and the higher bid is, the lower is the percentage of lost impressions. So it’s an important indicator demonstrating a real competitive environment in the auction of the search context.

One of the main reasons why most newbie affiliate marketers give up after 3 months is the fact that they can’t build up traffic to their affiliate website. It’s a thorn in most marketers’ sides, but one that can be easily resolved if you put the effort in. Below I have covered a few areas that will get you good targeted traffic to your affiliate deals.
This topic is extremely broad; there are countless strategies for increasing visibility (and ultimately click rate) on your affiliate links, ranging from incorporating links into your content to sending emails to your newsletter list. Check out some of the affiliate marketing gurus on our Best Monetization Blogs overview for an extensive supply of tips and tricks for boosting the number of clicks your affiliate links receive.

You might think that super affiliates would not want to help each other, but this is not the case. In fact, super affiliates become super affiliates because they help each other. Jim and Sue will sell Bob’s e-book. Next month Bob and Jim will promote Sue’s software tool. The month after that Bob and Sue will peddle memberships in Jim’s online community. Go through the archives of different super affiliates’ blogs and sign-up for their email newsletters. Watch for who they sell for. Then, follow those people. Soon you will uncover the pattern of cooperation for yourself. Notice too that super affiliate clans tend to share an industry or niche. This ensures that no matter whose product or service they are selling, they will always be selling something that can interest their audience.
Additionally, you must either include the following disclaimer adjacent to the pricing or availability information or provide it via a hyperlink, pop-up box, scripted pop-up, or other similar method: "Product prices and availability are accurate as of the date/time indicated and are subject to change. Any price and availability information displayed on [relevant Amazon Site(s), as applicable] at the time of purchase will apply to the purchase of this product." In the above examples, "Details" and "More info" would provide a method for the end user to read the disclaimer.
(f) You will not (i) interfere, or attempt to interfere, in any manner with the functionality or proper working of PA API; (ii) compile or use Product Advertising Content for the purpose of direct marketing, spamming, unsolicited contacting of sellers or customers, or other advertising activities; or (iii) remove, obscure, alter, or make invisible, illegible, or indecipherable, any notice, including any notice of intellectual property or proprietary right, appearing on or contained within PA API, Data Feeds, Product Advertising Content, or Specifications.
iii. You will link each use of Product Advertising Content to, and only to, the relevant page of an Amazon Site (for example, the relevant Product detail page or other page to which particular Product Advertising Content most directly relates), and you will not link any Product Advertising Content to, or in conjunction with any Product Advertising Content direct traffic to, any page of a site other than an Amazon Site (however, parts of your application that are not closely associated with Product Advertising Content may contain links to sites other than an Amazon Site).

For example, automated sales emails that are made to look like genuine emails might be useful once or twice, but as a regular occurrence, they will likely be seen as cheap and inauthentic. Moreover, these types of emails are borderline illegal in Canada due to Canada’s Anti-Spam Legislation (CASL), which states that it is a violation to send an email (or other electronic communications) to a person unless they have consented to receive it. And automated sales emails may potentially be in violation, as the person who sent an email and the person it was sent on behalf of must be disclosed. Furthermore, the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) enacted its own standards in 2018 that impact email marketing.


Purchased lists are ineffective, and they impact everyone else who uses Mailchimp, too. If you send emails to a list of people whose contact info you bought, many of the emails will get identified as spam. Some spam filters will flag a campaign if anyone with the same IP has sent spam in the past. When you use Mailchimp, your email is delivered through our servers, so if one person sends spam, it could prevent other users’ emails from reaching inboxes. But by forbidding Mailchimp users from using purchased lists, we increase deliverability for everyone.
3. Termination. Amazon may suspend or terminate Influencer’s participation in the Amazon Influencer Program, and Influencer may terminate such participation, in each case immediately by notice provided in accordance with the termination provisions of the Agreement. The rights set forth in Section 2 of this Influencer Program Policy will survive the termination of Influencer’s participation in the Amazon Influencer Program; provided that, we will use commercially reasonable efforts to remove any Influencer Marks from the Influencer Page following termination.
The Associates Program is free to join, and we provide resources on the Associates Site to help Associates succeed with the program. We have never authorized any business to provide paid set-up or consulting services to our associates, so please be wary if any business like that (even one attempting to appropriate the Amazon name) reaches out to offer you costly services.
A very popular product that uses affiliate leads that are used on a variety of popular social media platforms including Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, and Snapchat is for detox or slimming herbal teas. These teas come from many different brands around the world are usually endorsed by celebrities or reality tv stars to increase the likelihood of customers buying the product and its popularity. By using this form of marketing it is a win-win situation for all parties involved. This signifies that the advertiser’s, the celebrity or endorser of the product, and the consumer benefit from the affiliate lead.

On the other hand, the modestly-priced, regularly updated Super Affiliate Handbook is by far the most comprehensive on the subject of affiliate marketing, which explains why affiliate marketing professioanls, such as affiliate network and independent program managers as well as merchants with affiliate programs also have a copy of the Super Affiliate Handbook.

I think this email also makes quite a brilliant use of responsive design. The colors are bright, and it's not too hard to scroll and click -- notice the CTAs are large enough for me to hit with my thumbs. Also, the mobile email actually has features that make sense for recipients who are on their mobile device. Check out the CTA at the bottom of the email, for example: The "Open Stitcher Radio" button prompts the app to open on your phone.
i. You will use Product Advertising Content only in a lawful manner in accordance with and within the express scope of the terms of this License. You will not use PA API, Data Feeds, or Product Advertising Content with any site or application, or in any other manner, that does not have the principal purpose of advertising and marketing an Amazon Site and driving sales of products and services on an Amazon Site.
Most super affiliates begin by creating something worth selling, something that a large target audience finds valuable. This works best when the cost of reproduction is zero and the supply is inexhaustible. e-books, software programs and online tools are ideal. Yes, some super affiliates only promote products or services sold by other companies. However, they must work much harder to build and sustain an audience of buyers. Super affiliates with their own product possess an important bargaining chip.

Affiliates discussed the issues in Internet forums and began to organize their efforts. They believed that the best way to address the problem was to discourage merchants from advertising via adware. Merchants that were either indifferent to or supportive of adware were exposed by affiliates, thus damaging those merchants' reputations and tarnishing their affiliate marketing efforts. Many affiliates either terminated the use of such merchants or switched to a competitor's affiliate program. Eventually, affiliate networks were also forced by merchants and affiliates to take a stand and ban certain adware publishers from their network. The result was Code of Conduct by Commission Junction/beFree and Performics,[35] LinkShare's Anti-Predatory Advertising Addendum,[36] and ShareASale's complete ban of software applications as a medium for affiliates to promote advertiser offers.[37] Regardless of the progress made, adware continues to be an issue, as demonstrated by the class action lawsuit against ValueClick and its daughter company Commission Junction filed on April 20, 2007.[38]
The “matchmaking” service–offering access to a pool of merchants–is the role of a network that likely comes to mind first. But the administrative workload handled by networks can’t be overlooked; they handle all the tracking, reporting, and payment processing that arises during the steps shown above. While that might not seem like much, it can add up to a significant amount of time each week.
(k) If you display Product Advertising Content consisting of text on your application, you will include the following disclaimer in plain view to end users of your application: “CERTAIN CONTENT THAT APPEARS [IN THIS APPLICATION or ON THIS SITE, as applicable] COMES FROM AMAZON. THIS CONTENT IS PROVIDED ‘AS IS’ AND IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE OR REMOVAL AT ANY TIME.” You agree to provide us with any information that we request to verify your compliance with this License.

(c) Influencer Content and Site. For avoidance of doubt, you acknowledge that Influencer Content you submit will be subject to the provisions of the Conditions of Use on the relevant Amazon Site relating to posting content or submitting material and that your Site is subject to the requirements of Section 3(b) of the Participation Requirements relating to compliance with all applicable laws (for example, if applicable, the US FTC Guides Concerning Use of Endorsement and Testimonials in Advertising).
A few examples of affiliate leads are coupon codes, a specific link or URL that is being advertised that send the customer to the product, registering for a trial subscription, and downloading a whitepaper. Affiliate leads can range on its uses depending on the demographic, the product being sold to the specific consumer and the marketing budget that is set in place.
No matter how good your marketing skills are, you’ll make less money on a bad product than you will on a valuable one. Take the time to study the demand for a product before promoting it. Make sure to research the seller with care before teaming up. Your time is worth a lot, and you want to be sure you’re spending it on a product that is profitable and a seller you can believe in.

You can also establish commission tiers based on specific product categories. For example, you could pay 2 percent revenue share on electronics, and 10 percent on home decor, since the former carries a lower profit margin than the latter. A challenge of working with this dual structure is the technical integration. You will need to create a product feed for the affiliate network, and for each affiliate transaction that occurs you will have to submit item-level data to distinguish, say, electronics from home decor. Neither task is particularly challenging, but it does require some work.
For sites looking to monetize their existing traffic through affiliate marketing, a major determinant of success is picking the right offers to run. The difference in earnings from a bad offer and a good one can be enormous. Unfortunately, finding the “right” offer isn’t exactly easy; if you’re using an affiliate marketing network such as Commission Junction (now part of Conversant), SharesASale, or LinkShare, you will have literally thousands of affiliate offers available to you.

But before I get into that, we started off almost 20 years ago now, actually, as a full service web development firm, providing custom web based applications, custom web sites for a variety of different firms and different industries, different niches. That time, early 2000 and right at 2000, was really the boom where there was so many internet start ups left and right looking to get a website out, looking to get a web application out, so we really took advantage of that for several years developing a number of niche websites and custom web based applications.
(b) displaying Special Links and Program Content on your Site in compliance with the Agreement, all applicable laws, ordinances, rules, regulations, orders, licenses, permits, guidelines, codes of practice, industry standards, self-regulatory rules, judgments, decisions, or other requirements of any applicable governmental authority, including those related to disclosures (for example, if applicable, the U.S. FTC Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsement and Testimonials in Advertising) and electronic marketing, data protection and privacy (for example, if applicable, the Directive 2002/58/EC (Privacy and Electronic Communications Directive), and the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (EU) 2016/679), and any agreement between you and any other person or entity (including any restrictions or requirements placed on you by any person or entity that hosts your Site),
Particular groups of customers can be targeted or even individuals. Offering individual customers special deals on merchandise and/or services on the customer's birthday, for instance, is one example of email marketing personalization. (A restaurant might send an email to customers on their birthday offering 50% off an entree,) Email marketing helps a business develop and maintain a relationship with a customer over time that hopefully results in increased sales and increased customer loyalty. 
Affiliate marketing is very appealing to some publishers as well, because it can allow them to make considerably more money than they would under an alternative monetization strategy. Though the specifics of payout arrangements can vary a bit, in general affiliate payments will be significantly larger than the revenue generated from a click under a CPC pricing arrangement (or the effective CPC under a CPM arrangement). For high margin products such as e-books, for which there are no material costs, affiliate margins can be as 50% of the total purchase price. So it’s not unheard of for affiliates to generate $100 or much more from each referral.

You will use Program Content solely in accordance with the terms of the Agreement and within the express scope of the license granted herein. Without limiting the foregoing, you will (a) use Program Content solely to send end users and sales to an Amazon Site and will not link any Program Content to, or in conjunction with any Program Content, direct traffic to any page of a site other than an Amazon Site (however, parts of your Site that are not closely associated with the Program Content may contain links to sites other than an Amazon Site) and (b) link each use of the Program Content solely to the related Product detail page or other relevant page of an Amazon Site and not to any other page.


The Super Affiliate System is not responsible for your actions. You are solely responsible for your own moves and decisions and the evaluation and use of our products and services should be based on your own due diligence. You agree that Pendragon Labs LLC is not liable to you in any way for your results in using our products and services. See our Terms & Conditions for our full disclaimer of liability and other restrictions. 

And you don't want them to forget about you. That's the main thing. As I mentioned earlier, everybody is split doing a million things. So you've got to remind them, because maybe they just forgot they're an affiliate. Maybe they're saying, "Okay, that's right, I forgot. I can get on the ball. I've got some friends that could utilize this product or service."

The Associates Program is free to join, and we provide resources on the Associates Site to help Associates succeed with the program. We have never authorized any business to provide paid set-up or consulting services to our associates, so please be wary if any business like that (even one attempting to appropriate the Amazon name) reaches out to offer you costly services.


Offering a giveaway to a micro-influencer in the space. Micro-influencers make for great partners as their audience base is highly engaged. Offering a promotional giveaway to a micro-influencer allows them to create exciting content on their site while giving one of their readers the chance to win a product/service/monetary value from your company. It’s a win-win for everyone!
The Associates Program is free to join, and we provide resources on the Associates Site to help Associates succeed with the program. We have never authorized any business to provide paid set-up or consulting services to our associates, so please be wary if any business like that (even one attempting to appropriate the Amazon name) reaches out to offer you costly services.
Transactional emails are usually triggered based on a customer's action with a company. To be qualified as transactional or relationship messages, these communications' primary purpose must be "to facilitate, complete, or confirm a commercial transaction that the recipient has previously agreed to enter into with the sender" along with a few other narrow definitions of transactional messaging.[3] Triggered transactional messages include dropped basket messages, password reset emails, purchase or order confirmation emails, order status emails, reorder emails, and email receipts.
(c) any Product purchased by a customer who is referred to an Amazon Site through any advertisement that you purchased through participation in bidding or auctions on keywords, search terms, or other identifiers that include the word “amazon”, or “kindle”, or any other Amazon Mark (see a non-exhaustive list of our trademarks via the links below, or variations or misspellings of any of those words (e.g., “ammazon”, “amaozn”, and “kindel”)(all, a “Prohibited Paid Search Placement”),
I think of marketing as a game of darts. You aim your best but if it does not hit the bullseye you get to throw again (until you run out of darts). In marketing, you have a set of assumptions that you are trying to test. Your darts are your strategies/channels. You build experiments to see how well these strategies perform and you get to keep iterating until you run out of $$$.
Of course, there is no prescriptive recipe you can follow that guarantees success. To me, the best marketers are those that can simply build experiments, test assumptions, and iterate over their ideas quickly. Affiliate marketing is really no exception. Here are just a few tips and heuristics I’ve picked up through my experiences that should be helpful!
The License will immediately and automatically terminate if at any time you do not timely comply with any obligation under the Program Documents (as defined in the Fee Schedule), or otherwise upon termination of this Agreement. In addition, we may terminate the License in whole or in part upon written notice to you. You will promptly stop using the Program Content (including PA API and Data Feeds) and promptly remove from your Site and delete or otherwise destroy all of the Program Content and Amazon Marks with respect to which the License is terminated or as we may otherwise request from time to time.
1. New vs. existing customers. New customers traditionally have higher lifetime value than existing ones. This is because every new customer grows your customer base. And once you own the customers, you pay less to convert them on future purchases. Customers who have purchased from you already know your product, value your service, and presumably trust you. It costs more to acquire a new customer because you have to build that credibility and trust.
Also known as a publisher, the affiliate can be either an individual or a company that markets the seller’s product in an appealing way to potential consumers. In other words, the affiliate promotes the product to persuade consumers that it is valuable or beneficial to them and convince them to purchase the product. If the consumer does end up buying the product, the affiliate receives a portion of the revenue made.
Beyond that, avoid using all caps, too many exclamation marks, and hyperbolic phrases ("ACT NOW BEFORE TIME RUNS OUT!!!!"). Poorly formatted HTML in your emails can also hurt how they’re handled. Every spam filter is different, so an email might pass through one filter but get flagged by another. For more comprehensive info on how spam filters work and how to avoid them, check out this guide by MailChimp.
While any “regular” job requires you to be at work to make money, affiliate marketing offers you the ability to make money while you sleep. By investing an initial amount of time into a campaign, you will see continuous returns on that time as consumers purchase the product over the following days and weeks. You receive money for your work long after you’ve finished it. Even when you’re not in front of your computer, your marketing skills will be earning you a steady flow of income.
What do you think you could honestly sell customers in the hopes that it would improve their day-to-day? For example, maybe you renovate homes and are always looking for the highest-quality paints or most eco-friendly cleaning solutions for bathrooms and kitchens. If you’re already knowledgeable about a market and have interest in it, that’s a great place to start.
In the past, large affiliates were the mainstay, as catch-all coupon and media sites gave traffic to hundreds or thousands of advertisers. This is not so much the case anymore. With consumers using long-tail keywords and searching for very specific products and services, influencers can leverage their hyper-focused niche for affiliate marketing success. Influencers may not send advertisers huge amounts of traffic, but the audience they do send is credible, targeted, and has higher conversion rates. 
The best analysts and affiliate managers will be able to interpret this data and use it to their advantage. For instance, lower-value partners –those who are commonly credited for driving actions when high buyer intent already exists (e.g. at the point of check-out) or who poach traffic from other channels—can expect to see their payouts adjusted accordingly.
Affiliate marketing has grown quickly since its inception. The e-commerce website, viewed as a marketing toy in the early days of the Internet, became an integrated part of the overall business plan and in some cases grew to a bigger business than the existing offline business. According to one report, the total sales amount generated through affiliate networks in 2006 was £2.16 billion in the United Kingdom alone. The estimates were £1.35 billion in sales in 2005.[19] MarketingSherpa's research team estimated that, in 2006, affiliates worldwide earned US$6.5 billion in bounty and commissions from a variety of sources in retail, personal finance, gaming and gambling, travel, telecom, education, publishing, and forms of lead generation other than contextual advertising programs.[20]
×