Click through rates. Once your subscribers have opened your email, are they actually taking the action you need them to take? If you think that you have a low click-through rate, perhaps your body copy is not as effective as it needs to be. Consider the following: Is the copy of your email relevant to the subject line? Did you offer real value to your subscribers in the email? Is your call-to-action clear enough? Is the link easy to find?
When you decide to promote, or point traffic to, eBay.com, you’ll use an affiliate link. An affiliate link includes a unique ID given to you by the merchant – at EPN, we call this a Campaign ID. Then, when someone clicks on your affiliate link, the affiliate ID gets stored on that person’s browser within a text file known as a cookie. The EPN cookie contains several pieces of information, called “parameters”, including Campaign ID, to help us track the eBay shopping activity of users after they click on your link to ensure you get paid a commission.affiliate-tracking
Personalisation in email marketing is essential because most people want a more relevant experience. Email personalisation is not just about using people’s names in an email. It’s also about making sure you send the right emails to the right people at the right time. One essential tool for email personalisation is segmentation. You can get an email marketing expert to help you set up segments so you can personalize appropriately. Done right, email personalisation results in more clicks and more business.

New traffic to your site and company is a huge benefit. The affiliate lead will bridge trust between you and the customer which is vital for a consumer to take the next step and buy the product. The customer will more than likely return to the site and spread the information to others about your product.This is a win because the potential customer might not have otherwise had access to the product if had not been advertised and marketed through the affiliate’s website. In addition, with the ever growing and changing market of the internet the company may need to be looking for new affiliates to work with to match their target demographic. So, the method of marketing is constantly growing and adapting to match the current customer.


Becoming a part of an affiliate network is an excellent strategy for bloggers looking to up their current income or even just to begin actually making money from their blog. There are several options when it comes to affiliate marketing as well as strategies for making affiliate marketing work for you. Below I will teach you what is affiliate marketing, examples of affiliate marketing in blogging, affiliate strategies and some of the top affiliate networks to join.

So many brands and companies build their audiences on Facebook and Google+, which is fine, but we don’t own those names – Facebook and Google do. If we are thinking like real media companies, the asset is in the audience. Getting an email address is the first critical step to figuring out who my reader is and, hopefully in the future, my customer of some sort. If our goal is to drive sales or keep customers happy in some way, we first need to get them as part of our audience. If I have one regret as a business owner, it’s not focusing on building our email list earlier in the process.
In the case of cost per mille/click, the publisher is not concerned about whether a visitor is a member of the audience that the advertiser tries to attract and is able to convert, because at this point the publisher has already earned his commission. This leaves the greater, and, in case of cost per mille, the full risk and loss (if the visitor cannot be converted) to the advertiser.
This may have sparked your interest, but it may also sound really complicated. You might be wondering how these magical affiliate links get created or who handles the payouts when an affiliate earns commission. There are companies out there, such as CJ Affiliate by Conversant or LinkConnector, that serve as affiliate networks. The merchant can post their offers in the network (for example: what they are willing to pay per conversion), and that merchant uploads graphic assets and other links that the affiliate can simply embed into their website on sidebars, blog posts, text links, and so on.

Who is your audience? What is your target market or niche? If you're targeting a specific niche like home security then perhaps you only need to sign up to ADT and SpyBase so your products match your audience. There’s no point promoting eco-mattresses to your blog that’s focused on reviewing drones. Again, you could sign up to a network that has a few different options in your field of interest or just go straight to your favourite suppliers and see if they have an affiliate program.
When you decide to promote, or point traffic to, eBay.com, you’ll use an affiliate link. An affiliate link includes a unique ID given to you by the merchant – at EPN, we call this a Campaign ID. Then, when someone clicks on your affiliate link, the affiliate ID gets stored on that person’s browser within a text file known as a cookie. The EPN cookie contains several pieces of information, called “parameters”, including Campaign ID, to help us track the eBay shopping activity of users after they click on your link to ensure you get paid a commission.affiliate-tracking
Affiliate marketing is a great place to start when you are looking to make money online.  Other than the cost of a webpage and your time, it is very low cost to get started. There are many business opportunities that promote affiliate marketing.  Some of these business opportunities are scams.  My subscribers have requested that I take a look into The Super Affiliate Network. They are concerned that it has a lot of similarities with the recently shutdown Digital Altitude and MOBE scams. Here is what I have found.
Social media is growing every day and as a society we continue to spend vast amounts of time on social platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and Pinterest. Because of this, social media is a goldmine for affiliate marketers. All these people in one place, with easy targeting based on age, location and interests, means that social media should be the first place you start to grow your online community. Use these platforms to drive engagement around your brand, as well as deliver traffic and leads to your desired affiliate offers.
Super affiliates who have their own product to sell can become affiliate managers, they can invite other people to promote on their behalf and pay them commissions. This is where having products like e-books and online tools work well. You can afford to pay high commissions – 50% to 75% – because it’s still pure profit when it doesn’t cost anything.  You can afford to give others a high incentive to promote on your behalf.  Most important, you can give other super affiliates exclusive access to sell your product during its introductory period.

— The most widespread risk our partners might face is spending $1000 on advertising, and having generated 100 leads, and only 20 of them having the approved orders. So they are left with minus $200. The main metric for them is the approval rate. This can also happen due to different reasons. For example, due to the ad campaign being launched at the nighttime. We are already optimizing all the processes. Our partners get paid beforehand and if the buy-out is low, that’s we who take all the risks.
Arlen: Gotcha. I'm definitely check that out. Yeah, he's a great guy. He knows a lot, him and Neil Patel. So they have a great podcast, and then I'll also take a look at Neil Patel's blog. His blog, very thoughtful blog. He puts a lot into his posts. He used to post a lot more but he's kind of pulled back and focused more on the quality of the content, and yeah. I take a look at that. So those are two things.
Demand for these insights and the flexibility to use them will soon become the expectation rather than the exception. What’s more is that these critical tools will ultimately help further allocate marketing budgets towards truly incremental partners. Without them, brands will be hamstrung and will struggle to fully leverage the potential of the affiliate marketing model.
(e) disclosing on your Site accurately and adequately, either through a privacy policy or otherwise, how you collect, use, store, and disclose data collected from visitors, including, where applicable, that third parties (including us and other advertisers) may serve content and advertisements, collect information directly from visitors, and place or recognize cookies on visitors’ browsers, and providing information on the visitor’s choices with respect to opting-out from online advertising where required by applicable law, and
If you rely on Facebook or Twitter, you are at the mercy of them allowing you to talk to your customers. When you email it gets in your customers inboxes. Then it’s up to you to make sure you are sending things your customers want to receive. Email is the most scalable way to make sales with new customers and build deeper relationship with deeper customers. AppSumo.com is a 7 figure business and 90%+ of our revenue comes from emails.
Constant consultations provided by our account managers help us achieve all of the above mentioned. The majority of them are the residents of the country where the products are provided. So, for example, if you are doing business in Italy, you will get a full information about all possible communication channels in this geo, and up to different slangs and mentallity in this region.
This is where we put the “marketing” in affiliate marketing. It’s up to you as the affiliate marketer to make sure that your audience sees the affiliate links and offers you have on your site. You can’t simply throw them into the right sidebar and hope that your audience seeks them out and clicks on them. There’s a great deal that you can do to increase the likelihood that your visitors click on the links and get in front of the affiliate offer.

What I realized with working from home and making money online is that the more people you genuinely help, the more money you end up making. Helping others to succeed will create you a large following of loyal customers. If you are sick of failing in this industry, frustrated with not getting any results or making sales, or having issues generating quality traffic, please contact me at: youronlinesuccessplan@gmail.com

The Associates Program is free to join, and we provide resources on the Associates Site to help Associates succeed with the program. We have never authorized any business to provide paid set-up or consulting services to our associates, so please be wary if any business like that (even one attempting to appropriate the Amazon name) reaches out to offer you costly services.
Purchased lists are ineffective, and they impact everyone else who uses Mailchimp, too. If you send emails to a list of people whose contact info you bought, many of the emails will get identified as spam. Some spam filters will flag a campaign if anyone with the same IP has sent spam in the past. When you use Mailchimp, your email is delivered through our servers, so if one person sends spam, it could prevent other users’ emails from reaching inboxes. But by forbidding Mailchimp users from using purchased lists, we increase deliverability for everyone.
Subject to the terms of the Agreement and solely for the limited purposes of participation in the Associates Program in strict compliance with the Agreement (including this License and the other Program Policies), we hereby grant you a limited, revocable, non-transferable, non-sublicensable, non-exclusive, royalty-free license to: (a) copy and display Program Content solely on your Site; (b) use only those of the Amazon Marks (as defined in the Trademark Guidelines) we make available to you as part of the Program Content, solely on your Site and in accordance with the Trademark Guidelines, and (c) access and use PA API, Data Feeds, and Product Advertising Content solely in accordance with the Specifications and this License.
Can you make money with affiliate marketing? The short answer is yes, affiliate programs can earn a extra money and even a full-time income from home. The long answer is a little more complicated. Like any home income venture, success comes not so much from what you choose to do to make money, but whether or not you do what needs to be done correctly and consistently.

4. Sales incentives. Structure your commission rates so that you have additional margin to offer sales incentives. For example, perhaps you are launching a new product line and you want affiliates to focus their marketing efforts on it. If you have room in your commission structure, you can offer a temporary increase — or perhaps sales bonuses — for hitting established revenue targets. I addressed sales incentives here previously, in “Affiliate Marketing: 3 Incentives to Drive Sales.”
Becoming a part of an affiliate network is an excellent strategy for bloggers looking to up their current income or even just to begin actually making money from their blog. There are several options when it comes to affiliate marketing as well as strategies for making affiliate marketing work for you. Below I will teach you what is affiliate marketing, examples of affiliate marketing in blogging, affiliate strategies and some of the top affiliate networks to join.
Unsubscribe rate. Unsubscribes are always going to happen no matter what, and that’s usually OK because those people probably would never have bought from you anyway. However, a high unsubscribe rate can indicate that you are losing potential customers. Check the following: Why did people subscribe to your list in the first place, and are you delivering on that promise? Is the content of your autoresponder highly relevant to the segment it is being sent to? Are you sending too many sales emails with too little value emails? (Recommended reading: 5 Reasons Why People Unsubscribe from Your Email List.)
We may change your Account Identifiers or Data Feed Access ID from time to time. An Account Identifier that is a private key or a Data Feed Access ID that is a password is for your personal use only, and you must maintain its secrecy and security. You may not sell, transfer, sublicense, or otherwise disclose your private key or password to any other person or entity. An Account Identifier that is a public key or a Data Feed Access ID that is a username is not secret.
Yes, it is exactly as cool as it sounds. Every Friday you can get the best and the cutest stories about cats. Those newsletters include a bunch of links and meow-worthy pictures of cats. Also, you can always ask Dumb Cat for an advice and maybe he will give you an answer in the next email. So, what would Dumb Cat say if you told him ‘I want to try to pay someone to write my paper’? We are sure that he would recommend you to get some snacks and go for it!
3. Paying for leads. Some merchants benefit by paying affiliates on a lead basis. For example, an insurance company might pay affiliates a fixed bounty for each potential customer who signs up for an estimate. Alternately, a car dealership might pay affiliates for each customer that requests information on a specific car, and perhaps an additional bonus if the customer schedules a test drive.
So many brands and companies build their audiences on Facebook and Google+, which is fine, but we don’t own those names – Facebook and Google do. If we are thinking like real media companies, the asset is in the audience. Getting an email address is the first critical step to figuring out who my reader is and, hopefully in the future, my customer of some sort. If our goal is to drive sales or keep customers happy in some way, we first need to get them as part of our audience. If I have one regret as a business owner, it’s not focusing on building our email list earlier in the process.
A browser extension is a plug-in that extends the functionality of a web browser. Some extensions are authored using web technologies such as HTML, JavaScript, and CSS. Most modern web browsers have a whole slew of third-party extensions available for download. In recent years, there has been a constant rise in the number of malicious browser extensions flooding the web. Malicious browser extensions will often appear to be legitimate as they seem to originate from vendor websites and come with glowing customer reviews.[32] In the case of affiliate marketing, these malicious extensions are often used to redirect a user’s browser to send fake clicks to websites that are supposedly part of legitimate affiliate marketing programs. Typically, users are completely unaware this is happening other than their browser performance slowing down. Websites end up paying for fake traffic number, and users are unwitting participants in these ad schemes.

Individual sellers and companies offering products or services have to deal with their consumers and ensure they are satisfied with what they have purchased. Thanks to the affiliate marketing structure, you’ll never have to be concerned with customer support or customer satisfaction. The entire job of the affiliate marketer is to link the seller with the consumer. The seller deals with any consumer complaints after you receive your commission from the sale.


SellHealth — SellHealth is a health affiliate network. It’s free for affiliates to join, should their applications be accepted. All of SellHealth’s sales are made through company-owned websites, meaning affiliates don’t need to facilitate sales on their own sites. This eliminates the possibility of error and increases consumer trust, as they are sent to a legitimate brand site to complete their purchases.
Most businesses require startup fees as well as a cash flow to finance the products being sold. However, affiliate marketing can be done at a low cost, meaning you can get started quickly and without much hassle. There are no affiliate program fees to worry about and no need to create a product. Beginning this line of work is relatively straightforward.
(i) You will include a date/time stamp adjacent to your display of pricing or availability information on your application if you obtain Product Advertising Content from Data Feeds, or if you call PA API or refresh the Product Advertising Content displayed on your application less frequently than hourly. However, during the same day on which you requested and refreshed the pricing and availability information displayed on your application, you may omit the date portion of the stamp. Examples of acceptable messaging include:
Campaign Monitor customer Rip Curl utilized segmentation and dynamic content to deliver the right message to the right person. For example, they know the gender of their subscribers and where they are located geographically, so they can ensure that females in the United States receive a promotion about bathing suits during the summer months and males in Australia receive an email about wetsuits during the winter months.

Personalisation in email marketing is essential because most people want a more relevant experience. Email personalisation is not just about using people’s names in an email. It’s also about making sure you send the right emails to the right people at the right time. One essential tool for email personalisation is segmentation. You can get an email marketing expert to help you set up segments so you can personalize appropriately. Done right, email personalisation results in more clicks and more business.
Merchants receiving a large percentage of their revenue from the affiliate channel can become reliant on their affiliate partners. This can lead to affiliate marketers leveraging their important status to receive higher commissions and better deals with their advertisers. Whether it’s CPA, CPL, or CPC commission structures, there are a lot of high paying affiliate programs and affiliate marketers are in the driver’s seat.
A few examples of affiliate leads are coupon codes, a specific link or URL that is being advertised that send the customer to the product, registering for a trial subscription, and downloading a whitepaper. Affiliate leads can range on its uses depending on the demographic, the product being sold to the specific consumer and the marketing budget that is set in place.
"Why aren't millennials moving?" The subject line of this email campaign reads before citing interesting data about relocation trends in the U.S. Trulia doesn't benefit from people who choose not to move, but the company does benefit from having its fingers on the pulse of the industry -- and showing it cares which way the real estate winds are blowing.

All sorts of email marketing messages are clogging up inboxes. To improve your open rates, you must be strategic and make your recipients want to open your email marketing messages. For instance, email newsletters that are chock full of helpful tips and resources might be more effective for your audience than sales promos. Once you’ve earned trust and a captive audience, recipients may be more inclined to open up emails that are more promotional in nature.
There are basically 2 ways to join SAN. For $1 there is a 30-day trial and after that is $47/month for as long as you remain a member. Or you can skip the $1 trial and join for $37/month. That way you can save $10 every month. That is also the reason some people get confused about how much it really costs to join SAN. You must know though that if you choose the $1 trial and decide you don’t want to continue you must cancel your membership or you will be charged $47 after the trial expires. 
An influencer is an individual who holds the power to impact the purchasing decisions of a large segment of the population. This person is in a great position to benefit from affiliate marketing. They already boast an impressive following, so it’s easy for them to direct consumers to the seller’s products through social media posts, blogs, and other interactions with their followers. The influencers then receive a share of the profits they helped to create.
So many brands and companies build their audiences on Facebook and Google+, which is fine, but we don’t own those names – Facebook and Google do. If we are thinking like real media companies, the asset is in the audience. Getting an email address is the first critical step to figuring out who my reader is and, hopefully in the future, my customer of some sort. If our goal is to drive sales or keep customers happy in some way, we first need to get them as part of our audience. If I have one regret as a business owner, it’s not focusing on building our email list earlier in the process.

Sending the same email to your entire list is not going to have great results, just like posting the same message to all your social media channels isn’t the most effective practice. Ideally, the content should be tailored and segmented based on where your users are in the sales funnel, how they’ve engaged with your company, and the preferences they select on your email signup forms. Mailgun’s email marketing software includes a number of recipient variables that you can integrate into your email templates to achieve a highly personalized experience for your recipients.
This is where we put the “marketing” in affiliate marketing. It’s up to you as the affiliate marketer to make sure that your audience sees the affiliate links and offers you have on your site. You can’t simply throw them into the right sidebar and hope that your audience seeks them out and clicks on them. There’s a great deal that you can do to increase the likelihood that your visitors click on the links and get in front of the affiliate offer.
Kathleen: Oh, that's neat. Yeah, one of the reasons I was really interested to talk with you, is that I haven't really spoken with anyone in depth about affiliate or referral marketing in this podcast. Which, when I started thinking about it, it was kind of surprising to me because what I'm focused on is inbound marketing, which is naturally attracting the right customers as opposed to going out and spamming them and trying to get in front of them.
An affiliate marketing program is a method for building partnerships with bloggers and influencers in your space that have an online audience and paying them per lead they send to your site. Usually you both sign an agreement at a set cost per conversion on your site. The partnership is mutually beneficial in that they benefit by monetizing traffic to their site, and you benefit by having an influencer vouch for your product and send qualified traffic to your site.’ — GrowthMarketingPro.com

This may have sparked your interest, but it may also sound really complicated. You might be wondering how these magical affiliate links get created or who handles the payouts when an affiliate earns commission. There are companies out there, such as CJ Affiliate by Conversant or LinkConnector, that serve as affiliate networks. The merchant can post their offers in the network (for example: what they are willing to pay per conversion), and that merchant uploads graphic assets and other links that the affiliate can simply embed into their website on sidebars, blog posts, text links, and so on.


Since super affiliates promote each other’s wares it becomes in their best interest to promote each other personally too. If I help you become more popular then you can sell more e-books for me. If you help me build my audience I can sell more memberships for you. Super affiliates go out of their way to do nice things for each other and especially to help grow each other’s blog readership and email lists. They protect each other too. If something unjust happens to a super affiliate then his or her clan will provide defense and aide. Protecting each other protects their income.
Defendants’ program consists of a series of tiered membership levels, each with a membership fee higher than the last. Defendants pay a consumer only when the consumer recruits new consumers to join the program, through commissions on the new consumers’ membership fees. Although Defendants’ program ostensibly provides business coaching that will help members build a successful business, the goal of that “coaching” is to persuade the member to purchase a higher membership tier. – Source FTC

Demand for these insights and the flexibility to use them will soon become the expectation rather than the exception. What’s more is that these critical tools will ultimately help further allocate marketing budgets towards truly incremental partners. Without them, brands will be hamstrung and will struggle to fully leverage the potential of the affiliate marketing model.
Affiliate marketing doesn’t happen in a vacuum. It’s typically one of several marketing strategies a company is executing in concert. If you look at how each channel plays a role in customer sales, you get a fairly clear picture of which channels should be attributed to each sale. By resolving which channels create a higher cost of customer acquisition, you can optimize to help reduce those customer acquisition costs over time.
If at any time there has been no substantial activity on your account for at least 3 years, then we will have the right, with 7 days’ written notice to withhold the accrued fees for your inactive account, up to a maximum closure withholding of an amount equal to the minimum amount listed in the Payment Minimum Chart for payment by gift card. Further, any unpaid accrued fees in your account may be subject to escheatment under applicable law.
Find your affiliates and affiliate programs in all the right places --As humans, many of us hope to inherently trust one another. We’d like to believe that someone’s word is good. That a check will cash. That we’ll again see the man who said he’d pay us tomorrow. If you’ve spent even a smidgeon of time working as a freelancer, you know this isn’t always the case. People pay late, if at all. You turn in work, and the source contests it. In order to avoid disappointment and fraud, make sure you are using a legitimate network to find both merchants and affiliates.

Part of the affiliate marketing game involves picking out merchant partners and products to promote. If you’re promoting a crap product, you can probably send some traffic through the affiliate link by doing a good job of marketing it to your audience. But once they get to the merchant site and are disappointed in what they see, they’re probably going to abandon.


8. Most super affiliate, make the vast majority of their money from the big competitive niches, and not from the smaller, less competitive niches. Super affiliates are not afraid of competition, whereas many struggling affiliates are. Super affiliates realize that to make big money, you have to go where the big money is. I’ll clarify this by saying that small niches are good to sink your teeth into early on and to make some sales, but in the long run, to make 7 figures or more online, you need to get good at marketing in one of the major niches where billions of dollars are being spent (e.g., diet/fitness, make money online, dating/relationships niches, self-help, security software, etc.).
Once you acquire a customer through an affiliate, you can then market directly to that customer going forward. It’s important to figure out the lifetime value of your customer as that can also help you decide what commission to pay. With this information you can decide if your acquisition costs are correct or you may decide to be more aggressive with payouts to get those customers in the door.

To begin the enrollment process, you must submit a complete and accurate Associates Program application. Your Site(s) must contain original content and be publicly available via the website address provided in the application. You must identify your Site(s) in your application. We will evaluate your application and notify you of its acceptance or rejection. Your Site will not be eligible for inclusion in the Associates Program, and you cannot include any Special Links or Product Advertising Content on it, if your Site is unsuitable. Unsuitable Sites include those that:


When you decide to promote, or point traffic to, eBay.com, you’ll use an affiliate link. An affiliate link includes a unique ID given to you by the merchant – at EPN, we call this a Campaign ID. Then, when someone clicks on your affiliate link, the affiliate ID gets stored on that person’s browser within a text file known as a cookie. The EPN cookie contains several pieces of information, called “parameters”, including Campaign ID, to help us track the eBay shopping activity of users after they click on your link to ensure you get paid a commission.affiliate-tracking
(a) Reservation of Rights. We reserve all right, title and interest (including all intellectual property and proprietary rights) in and to, and you do not, by virtue of the Agreement or otherwise, acquire any ownership interest or rights in or to, the Influencer Page, the Influencer Page URL or information and materials on the Influencer Page. You will not take any action that conflicts with our rights in, or ownership of, the Influencer Page. Amazon reserves all rights to determine the content, appearance, functionality, URL, and all other aspects of the Influencer Page, including through the display of (i) advertising materials on the Influencer Page, without compensation to Influencer, and (ii) disclosure (by text, link, icon, or otherwise) regarding Influencer’s participation in the Influencer Program.
An influencer is an individual who holds the power to impact the purchasing decisions of a large segment of the population. This person is in a great position to benefit from affiliate marketing. They already boast an impressive following, so it’s easy for them to direct consumers to the seller’s products through social media posts, blogs, and other interactions with their followers. The influencers then receive a share of the profits they helped to create.

The Omnistar Affiliate software was one of them. We actually had about eight different web based applications during the early 2000's and as time went on, we really just looked at the data and we just said, "the Omnistar Affiliate software's the one that really took off" and with having all those other solutions, we were really almost running ourselves a little thin trying to maintain all of those products, so we decided to phase out the other solutions and really go full force with the Omnistar Affiliate software. Which is - 


You might think that super affiliates would not want to help each other, but this is not the case. In fact, super affiliates become super affiliates because they help each other. Jim and Sue will sell Bob’s e-book. Next month Bob and Jim will promote Sue’s software tool. The month after that Bob and Sue will peddle memberships in Jim’s online community. Go through the archives of different super affiliates’ blogs and sign-up for their email newsletters. Watch for who they sell for. Then, follow those people. Soon you will uncover the pattern of cooperation for yourself. Notice too that super affiliate clans tend to share an industry or niche. This ensures that no matter whose product or service they are selling, they will always be selling something that can interest their audience.

Affiliates were among the earliest adopters of pay per click advertising when the first pay-per-click search engines emerged during the end of the 1990s. Later in 2000 Google launched its pay per click service, Google AdWords, which is responsible for the widespread use and acceptance of pay per click as an advertising channel. An increasing number of merchants engaged in pay per click advertising, either directly or via a search marketing agency, and realized that this space was already occupied by their affiliates. Although this situation alone created advertising channel conflicts and debates between advertisers and affiliates, the largest issue concerned affiliates bidding on advertisers names, brands, and trademarks.[39] Several advertisers began to adjust their affiliate program terms to prohibit their affiliates from bidding on those type of keywords. Some advertisers, however, did and still do embrace this behavior, going so far as to allow, or even encourage, affiliates to bid on any term, including the advertiser's trademarks.
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